Nutritional Facts
Nutrients are substances necessary for proper bodily function. Some are required in large quantities (macronutrients) and some are required in small quantities (micronutrients). There are 4 types of macronutrients:

And 2 types of micronutrients:

Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. Proteins are used in making hormones, blood plasma transport systems, and enzymes. The basic building blocks of proteins are called am no acids. There are two types of proteins: complete and incomplete. Amino acids are categorized as essential and non-essential. Of the twenty amino acids that have been identified, nine are considered essential amino acids and are not manufactured by the body. These must come from dietary intake. The body can manufacture the non-essential amino acids from the by-products of carbohydrate metabolism. Amino acids are crucial for proper Central Nervous System (CNS) function.

 Non-Essential Amino Acids
  • Alanine - provides energy for muscle tissue, brain and CNS; aids antibody production to enhance the immune system; helps metabolize sugars and organic acids.
  • Arginine - improves immune response to bacteria, viruses and tumor cells; promotes healing and liver regeneration; aids the release of growth hormones for muscle growth and tissue repair.
  • Aspartic Acid (Asparagine) - aids in the excretion of ammonia, which is toxic to the CNS; may increase resistance to fatigue and increase endurance.
  • Cysteine - antioxidant protection against radiation and pollution; slows the aging process; deactivates free radicals; neutralizes toxins; aids in protein synthesis; crucial for the skin development aiding in the recovery from burns and surgical procedures. Hair and skin are comprised of 10-14% Cysteine.
  • Glycine - aids in the release of oxygen during the cell-making process. It is important for hormone production in strengthening the immune system.
  • Glutamic Acid (Glutamine) - improves mental capabilities; helps healing of ulcers; reduces fatigue; helps control alcoholism, schizophrenia and sugar cravings.
  • Taurine - stabilizes membranes excitability in the control of epileptic seizures; controls biochemical changes responsible for the aging process; aids in the excretion of free radicals.
  • Proline - promotes proper joint and tendon function; strengthens heart muscles.
  • Serine - storage source of glucose for the liver and muscles; antibody production enhances the immune system; synthesizes fatty acid covering around nerve fibers (insulator).
  • Tyrosine - transmission of nerve impulses to the brain; fights depression; improves memory and mental alertness; promotes the proper function of the adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands.

Essential Amino Acids 

  • Histidine - hemoglobin component; used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergic diseases, ulcers & anemia. A deficiency may cause hearing problems.
  • Isoleucine and Leucine - mental alertness, also provides manufacturing components for other essential biochemical components in the body, which are utilized for the production of energy and upper brain stimulants.
  • Lysine - Insures adequate absorption of calcium; helps form collagen (component of bone, cartilage and connective tissues); aids in the production of antibodies, hormones & enzymes. Lysine may be effective against herpes by improving the balance of nutrients that reduce viral growth. A deficiency may result in tiredness, inability to concentrate, irritability, bloodshot eyes, retarded growth, hair loss, anemia and reproductive problems.
  • Methionine - a sulfur source, which prevents disorders of the hair, skin and nails; lowers cholesterol by increasing the liver's production of lecithin and reduces liver fat build-up; protects the kidneys; a natural chelating agent for heavy metals; regulates the formation of ammonia and creates ammonia-free urine thereby reducing bladder irritation; promotes healthy hair growth.
  • Phenylalanine - allows the brain to produce Norepinephrine used for the transmission of signals between nerve cells and the brain; regulates hunger; antidepressant; improves memory and mental alertness.
  • Threonine - a component of collagen, Elastin, and enamel protein; reduces liver fat build-up; promotes proper digestive system function and metabolism.
  • Tryptophan - a relaxant; alleviates insomnia; prevents migraine; reduces anxiety and depression; promotes proper immune system function; reduces the risk of cardiovascular spasms; works in conjunction with Lysine to lower cholesterol levels.
  • Valine - promotes mental health, muscle coordination and tempers emotions.

Other protein comes from the recycling of enzymes and other proteins. Protein is synthesized in all tissues in the body; however, the liver and muscles are the most active. The body synthesizes about 300 grams of protein per day even though average intake is only 70 grams.
Proteins that contain all nine essential amino acids in sufficient quantity to sustain life are called complete proteins. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) is a measurement of protein's completeness. Protein is rated according to various indices; the most common measurement being the Biological Value or BV of the protein. The higher the BV value the more readily the protein is absorbed by the body. Eggs have the highest BV value (100). Whey protein's value is close to 100 while beans have a BV of 49. Ratings of greater than 100 refer to the chemical score of an amino acid pattern in a reference protein to a test protein and not the BV.

Meat, fish, milk, cheese and eggs contain complete proteins. Incomplete proteins such as vegetables, grains, seeds, and nuts are those which do not contain all nine essential amino acids by themselves. However, combinations of incomplete protein foods or mutual supplementation can supply all nine essential amino acids such as beans with rice or peanut butter on wheat bread. Therefore, vegetarians can get all the amino acids required by combining incomplete protein foods. It is not necessary to combine proteins at the same meal as many people believe. Therefore a breakfast of one incomplete protein and a dinner of another incomplete protein will provide the benefits of eating a complete protein.

Grains & Legumes Grains & Nuts/Seeds
  • peanut butter sandwich
  • rice & beans
  • vegetable stir-fry & rice
  • chili & wheat bread
  • tortillas & beans
  • pea soup & roll
  • rice cakes/peanut butter
  • roll with sesame seeds
  • banana-nut bread
  • oat-nut bread

Legumes & Nuts/Seeds Grains & Dairy
  • chickpea humus
  • trail mix
  • bean soup & sesame seeds
  • cereal with milk
  • macaroni & cheese
  • yogurt with granola
  • cheese sandwiches
  • rice pudding

Examples of Protein rich foods:

  • High Fat - Meat, salmon, eggs, peanut butter, milk, cheese
  • Low Fat - Tuna, egg whites, red beans, skim milk, non-fat cheese

Proteins begin digestion in the stomach but are primarily digested in the small intestine and metabolized by the liver for the building of tissue. Proteins, that are not required for building tissue, can be utilized as an energy source and provide 4 calories per gram. About 98% of the protein from animal sources and about 80% of the protein from vegetable sources is absorbed by the body.
Fasting causes the body to use protein as an energy source even to the point of breaking down vital tissues such as organs and muscles to use as an energy source. Excess protein, not utilized for tissue repair or growth or as an energy source is converted by the body to fat and stored.
Protein requirements depend on the individual and daily activity. Tissue growth, whether due to growth, injury, weight training, or pregnancy effect protein requirements. During illness, protein is not only required for repair but is generally used as an energy source. According to RDA requirements, an adult should consume approximately 0.36 grams of protein per pound of body weight on a daily basis (0.8 grams or protein per kg of body weight) as a minimum requirement. As an example, a 150-pound person should consume approximately 50 grams of protein daily. This translates to 200 calories of protein daily. As a general rule, for intense weight training, up to 1 gram per pound of body weight may be consumed.

Since protein metabolism produces nitrogen in the body this creates an extra workload for the kidneys and liver to eliminate the excess. Dehydration can occur because the kidneys require increased amounts of water to dilute the nitrogen. Dehydration can impede workout performance. It is therefore important to adequately hydrate when consuming increased levels of protein.

Hair-loss and thinning, as well as, brittle and discolored fingernails can be external manifestations of protein deficiencies. Internal ramifications can be muscle wasting, weak ligaments and cellular dysfunction since amino acids will be in short supply. Muscle growth will also be limited or unavailable due to an insufficient amount of protein.

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Carbohydrates are utilized for energy, both instant and sustained. When insufficient carbohydrates are taken in, the body must utilize proteins for energy even to the point of catabolizing (cannibalizing) muscle tissue for energy.
Digestive enzymes in the small intestines break down the carbohydrates into glucose. The glucose can be immediately utilized by the body or stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver. The muscles can store about 20 minutes of glycogen for energy. The bloodstream can hold about an hour of glucose for energy. If glucose levels are maximized and all glycogen storage locations are full then the excess glucose is
converted to fat by the liver and stored in adipose tissue or fat cells. There is really no limit to the amount of fat that a body can store. According to studies at the University of Massachusetts, carbohydrates are generally converted to fat at the rate of 75% where 25% of the carbohydrates are used in the conversion process.
There are three types of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.

Monosaccharides are simple sugars and are the basic unit of carbohydrate. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose and fructose.

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides. Examples of disaccharides are table sugar (sucrose), which is composed of fructose and glucose also milk sugar (lactose), which is composed of glucose and galactose.

Polysaccharides are composed of multiple monosaccharides. Examples of polysaccharides are starches (bread, fruit, grain, pasta, rice). These are also called complex carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates should comprise approximately 60% of the daily caloric intake. Therefore, for a 3000-calorie total daily intake, 1800 of those calories should be carbohydrates.

Fiber is a form of carbohydrate. Approximately 20 grams of dietary fiber is required in our diets. Fiber facilitates elimination and decreases appetite as a bulking agent. Fiber also inhibits the absorption of cholesterol into the blood stream. It has also been shown that fiber slows the absorption of sucrose into the bloodstream. This can be important in the treatment of type II diabetes. Too much fiber in the diet can restrict the absorption of necessary vitamins and minerals. Excess carbohydrates are converted into fat by the liver and stored in adipose tissue.
Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream within minutes. Consuming large amounts of sugar prior to exercise can actually inhibit performance. This produces a drastic increase in blood sugar. This causes the pancreas to secrete large amounts of insulin to metabolize the sugar. All this insulin inhibits the metabolization of fat by the muscles. Therefore, the muscles rely more on glycogen, which is in limited supply. The insulin reduces blood sugar level, which is already being reduced by the muscle utilization of glycogen stored for energy production. The blood sugar level reduces to a level, which may not only cause fatigue but dizziness as well. Therefore, consumption of excess sugar prior to exercise reduces performance and endurance.
Carbohydrate Loading 
Carbohydrate loading is when an athlete depletes and then force-feeds carbohydrates over a period of several days. Carbohydrates are first depleted, for example on a long fast run, then large amounts of carbohydrates eaten. The theory is that the body will overcompensate and store extra glycogen. For example, long distance runners and tri-athletes use carb-loading to sustain energy during long periods of exertion. Where as, bodybuilders often use this principle to create a full, hard and vascular muscle during competitions.
Carbohydrate Stacking 
This technique requires the consumption of several different kinds of carbohydrates each assimilated by the body at different rates based on their glycemic value. Eating a high glycemic food provides immediate energy while a low glycemic food provides energy at a slower controlled rate. This technique provides greater endurance for athletes.

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Fat is required for the production of cell membranes, blood lipids (body fat), bile (fat emulsifier), steroids and vitamin D. Fats molecules are made up of glycerol and fatty acids.
Body fat is also instrumental in body temperature regulation as insulation. Minimum body fat percentages of 7% for men and 12% for women are recommended. Fats are also utilized for the transport and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. In addition, fats are the only source of linoleic acid, which is required for skin growth and maintenance. Minimum daily requirement for unsaturated fat is 10 grams and 15 grams is preferred.

Types of Fat Characteristics Sources
Saturated Solid at room temp, raises blood cholesterol Animal sources, coconut, palm oil
Unsaturated Liquid at room temperature Plant sources
Hydrogenated Unsaturated converted chemically to saturated Regular margarine
Polyunsaturated Lowers blood cholesterol Safflower, corn, soy, sunflower, fish
Monosaturated No effect on blood cholesterol Canola, olive, peanut oils

Fats are digested by the enzyme lipase in the small intestines with the assistance of bile salts as emulsifiers. They are then transported through the bloodstream with the assistance of lipoproteins (fat + protein coating + phospholipids) and stored as Triglyceride (glycerol + 3 particles of fatty acids) in fat cells. They are then released into the bloodstream as fatty acids when energy is required.
The fatty acids travel through the bloodstream and are combined with glucose to burn the combination as energy. The combination of fatty acids and glucose is necessary for energy production. Inadequate carbohydrate availability will result in incomplete fat metabolization producing unused lipids called ketones and leading to a chemical imbalance in the blood known as ketosis. Organ and muscle tissue may be metabolized to provide glucose from the breakdown of protein. Most of the weight loss that occurs by severe carbohydrate restricted diets is from water loss as the kidneys attempt to rid the body of the ketones.
Fat is essential to survival. A fat-less diet can lead to severe problems. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, is used by the liver to manufacture arachidonic acid. This super polyunsaturated fat is used in cell membranes along with protein. When needed, this fatty acid is converted into a group of chemicals that regulate blood pressure, contractions in childbirth, blood clotting, peristalsis (gut motion), and the immune system. These chemicals are short lived and are manufactured locally as needed.
Cholesterol belongs to the same chemical family as steroids and is related to fat. It is important for the production of cell membranes, myelin sheaths around nerves, sex hormones, bile, and vitamin D.
Dietary cholesterol is the cholesterol consumed from the diet. Blood Serum cholesterol is the amount of cholesterol circulating in the bloodstream. The two are not closely related. Some people consume large quantities of dietary cholesterol and have a low serum cholesterol level. And, conversely, some people have high blood serum levels and consume very little dietary cholesterol. Conversion from dietary to blood serum cholesterol varies for each person and ranges from 20% to 90% of the amount consumed.
Blood serum cholesterol levels should remain below 200 mg per deciliter to be considered "normal" according to recent studies. This number represents only 10% of the total amount of cholesterol in the body. The rest is contained in cell membranes and other body tissues. The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends a dietary cholesterol consumption of no more than 300 mg per day. The body requires no intake of cholesterol but manufactures all the cholesterol it needs from dietary fat and produces about 1000 mg per day.
There are basically two types of Cholesterol transport systems, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). Each type is a fat carrying protein. LDL, the bad cholesterol carrier, transports cholesterol to the cells and is associated with Arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arterial walls. HDL, the good cholesterol carrier, transports cholesterol to the liver where it is processed for excretion or broken down for other uses. Monosaturated and Polyunsaturated fats lower LDL levels and increase HDL whereas Saturated fats increase LDL levels. The goal is therefore to minimize the LDL cholesterol by reducing the dietary intake of saturated fats. The food label may tout "no cholesterol" but the body manufactures cholesterol from saturated fats.
Arteriosclerosis is a condition where the arteries become occluded. This is caused by a lesion, which develops just under the inner lining of the arterial wall. This swelling, composed of fibrous protein, accumulates LDL carried cholesterol as blood platelets begin to stick to the damaged area. This accumulation reduces the inner diameter of the artery and subsequently leads to a decreased flow of blood through the artery. The platelets continue to accumulate at the injured site until a clot is formed, blocking all blood flow to the heart. The area of the heart normally being fed by this artery becomes injured. This is known as a heart attack.
Cardiovascular health is a result of proper diet and exercise. Genetics may predispose someone to high blood pressure or heart disease; however, diet, exercise and medication can lessen the impact and improve longevity.

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Water is essential for all energy production in the body. Water is also used for temperature regulation and waste elimination and is essential to cell processes. An inadequate supply of water can result in up to a 30% reduction of energy. Between 50% and 70% of the body weight is water. Insufficient water in the body results in a decrease of blood volume thereby reducing the overall oxygen transport ability of the blood to properly supply the muscles during exercise. Since blood is used to regulate body temperature, inadequate cooling of the body occurs. The heart rate increases as the cardiovascular system is stressed and overheated leading to possible heat stroke or heat exhaustion. We can survive without other nutrients for several weeks. However, we can only survive without water for about one week. Water is used to emulsify solutions within the body and transport them to the various tissues including the transport of waste byproducts.
Thirst is not an accurate measure of the body's water requirement. Age and environment alter the thirst mechanism. Therefore, a quantitative schedule must be utilized to adequately hydrate the body. Two hours prior to exercising in a hot environment, the participant should consume 2-3 cups of water and another 1-2 cups about 15 minutes before exercising. During exercise, about 4 ounces of water should be consumed every 15 minutes to replace water lost through sweat and maintain blood volume. As a guide, for each pound of body weight lost through sweating while exercising, drink two 8oz. glasses of water. A loss of only two-percent of body weight through sweating can bring on the onset of dehydration. Adults should drink about 2 1/2 quarts of water per day.
Early signs of dehydration include dizziness, fatigue, headache, and loss of appetite. Advanced dehydration is manifested by rapid pulse, shortness of breath, deep yellow urine, blurred vision and hearing loss.
Cold water is absorbed into the body from the stomach faster than warm water. Recent studies suggest that drinks containing up to 10% sugar are almost as readily absorbed from the stomach. These sugary drinks have been shown to improve endurance in events lasting 2 to 3 hours. However, for fat burning purposes, consumption of sugary drinks will provide carbohydrate energy to the exercising muscles and possibly shave off fat metabolization for use as energy.
Therefore, if your intent is performance, then consume sports drinks. However, if the purpose of the exercise session is to burn fat, then drink water only. The glycogen stores in the muscles will run out in about 20 minutes and the body will be forced to metabolize stored fat for continued energy.
Consumption of salt in excess of recommended dietary requirements draws water out of the cells thereby impairing cellular function. Salt depletion may occur during endurance type exercises and when consuming water only. Salt tablets are not recommended because they draw water out of the body and into the stomach. In cold weather, urine production is increased; therefore, it is just as important to properly hydrate in cold weather environments as it is in hot weather.


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Vitamins are organic compounds not manufactured by the body other than proteins, carbohydrates and fats that are required for growth, maintenance and repair. Vitamins require no digestion and are absorbed directly into the blood stream. The thirteen vitamins identified are divided into two groups, fat-soluble and water-soluble. The fat-soluble vitamins, which include A, D, E, and K are stored in the liver and in body fat. Mega doses of fat-soluble vitamins can produce a toxic effect in the liver and can accumulate in the tissues. Symptoms of toxicity are bone and joint pain, blurred vision, dry skin, and hair and weight loss. The body does not store water-soluble vitamins. The kidneys excrete excess or Mega doses of these vitamins. However, toxicity has been reported with A, niacin, C, D and B6. Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) are currently being revised.

Fat Soluble
Purpose Sources
1,000 mcg
Vision, skin, hair, growth, mucous membranes Egg yolk, milk, butter, yellow and dark green vegetables, yellow-orange fruits
Bone and tooth structure, needed to absorb calcium Sunshine, milk, eggs, fish
Red blood cells, muscles Whole grains, oils, fruits, green leafy vegetables
Blood clotting, bone growth Eggs, green leafy vegetables, cauliflower, tomatoes

Water Soluble Vitamins
Purpose Sources
Strengthens blood vessel walls, antihistamine, builds collagen Citrus, tomatoes, broccoli, potatoes, green peppers, cabbage, strawberries
Appetite, digestion, nerve function, carb metabolization Pork, legumes, whole grains, wheat germ, nuts Pork, legumes, whole grains, wheat germ, nuts
Fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism, mucous membraneMilk, dairy, whole grain, eggs, fish, green leafy vegetables Milk, dairy, whole grain, eggs, fish, green leafy vegetables
Appetite, lowers cholesterol, fat, protein and carb metabolismMeat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanuts, legumes, grains Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanuts, legumes, grains
Serotonin (mood regulation), protein metabolism Meat, poultry, fish, grains, bran, wheat germ, egg yolk, legumes, green leafy vegetables
B-12 Cobalmin
Red blood cells, genetic material production, new tissueMeat, poultry, fish, dairy Meat, poultry, fish, dairy
Folic Acid
Red blood cells, genetic material production Meat, eggs, fish, green vegetables, beans, asparagus, yeast
Pantothenic Acid
Adrenal function, food metabolization, nerve function Whole grains, eggs, vegetables, meats
Metabolization of glucose Egg yolk, milk, legumes, peanuts, bananas

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Minerals, in contrast to vitamins, are inorganic. Minerals also require no digestion. Some minerals are stored in the liver. It is important not to consume Mega doses of minerals on a regular basis above those amounts recommended.

 Minerals are divided into two groups: major and trace minerals. Major minerals are those that are required by the body in quantities greater than 100 mg per day and include Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Chloride and Sodium. Trace minerals are those that are required by the body in quantities less than 100 mg per day. Trace minerals are Iron, Copper, Zinc, Iodine and Selenium. The following table includes recommended daily allowance.

Essential Minerals
Purpose Source
Blood clotting, bones, muscles, nerves Milk products, broccoli
750 mg
Muscles, nerves, energy production, bones Cereal, meat, fish, legumes, dairy
Potassium *
2000 mg
Energy, hair, skin, nails, heart rhythm, muscle contraction, regulation of body fluids Citrus, bananas, fish, poultry, dairy
Magnesium *
350 mg
Bone growth, protein and energy production Egg yolks, dark leafy greens
Sodium *
500 mg
Muscle and nerve function, body fluid balance Meat, milk products, fish, salt
Aids digestion, maintains body fluid balance Salt
Insulin production, male prostate function, digestion, metabolism Shellfish, eggs, meat
Hemoglobin (blood oxygen transport), myoglobin (muscle oxygen storage) Meat, fish
Chloride *
Muscle and nerve function, acid-base balance, digestion Meat, milk products, fish
4 mg
Hardens bones and teeth Coffee, tea, spinach, gelatin, onion
150 mcg
Proper thyroid function Water, iodized salt
3 mg
Red blood cells, connective tissue, nerve fibers Shellfish, grains, nuts, chocolate
200 mcg
Carbohydrate metabolism Vegetables, grains, Brewer's yeast
250 mcg
Nitrogen metabolism Grains, vegetables
70 mcg
Works with vitamin E to protect cells Grains, meats, fish, poultry

* Electrolytes provide the proper electrical charge within the body fluids for the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and proper body fluid levels and acid-base fluid balance.

Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Dietary Requirements

Proper nutrition requires a balanced intake of Protein, Carbohydrates and Fat. Protein and Carbohydrates are both 4 calories per gram. Fat is 9 calories per gram. An example follows for a daily caloric requirement of 2000 calories. The amount of grams of each will vary according to your daily caloric requirement (based on BMR). However, the percentages should remain the same for all. The following example is for a daily caloric requirement of 2000 calories:

Protein 4 cal/g 30% of total = 600 cal (protein) = 150g
Carbohydrates 4 cal/g 60% of total = 1200 cal (protein) = 300g
Fat 9 cal/g 10% of total = 200 cal (protein) = 22g

Note: However, for specialized diet plans (bodybuilding/fitness, sports specific, diabetic, or hypoglycemic) these percentages may need to be adjusted.

Female Age 11-14 15-18 19-24 25-50 51+
Protein46 g44 g46 g50 g50 g
Calcium1200 mg1200 mg1200 mg800 mg800 mg
Iron15 mg15 mg15 mg15 mg10 mg
Sodium2000 mg2000 mg2000 mg2000 mg2000 mg
Phosphorus1200 mg1200 mg1200 mg800 mg800 mg
Vitamin A4000 IU4000 IU4000 IU4000 IU4000 IU
Vitamin C50 mg60 mg60 mg60 mg60 mg
Thiamin1.1 mg1.1 mg1.1 mg1.1 mg1.0 mg
Riboflavin1.3 mg1.3 mg1.3 mg1.3 mg1.2 mg
Niacin15 mg15 mg15 mg15 mg13 mg

Male Age11-1415 - 1819 - 2425 - 5051+
Protein45 g59 g58 g63 g63 g
Calcium1200 mg1200 mg1200 mg800 mg800 mg
Iron12 mg12 mg10 mg10 mg10 mg
Sodium2000 mg2000 mg2000 mg2000 mg2000 mg
Phosphorus1200 mg1200 mg1200 mg800 mg800 mg
Vitamin A5000 IU5000 IU5000 IU5000 IU5000 IU
Vitamin C50 mg60 mg60 mg60 mg60 mg
Thiamin1.3 mg1.5 mg1.5 mg1.5 mg1.2 mg
Riboflavin1.5 mg1.8 mg1.7 mg1.7 mg1.4 mg
Niacin17 mg20 mg19 mg19 mg15 mg

Child Age0 - 0.50.5 - 11-34-67-10
Calories650 kcal850 kcal1300kcal1800kcal2000kcal
Protein13 g14 g16 g24 g28 g
Calcium400 mg600 mg800 mg800 mg800 mg
Iron6 mg10 mg10 mg10 mg10 mg
Sodium2000 mg2000 mg2000 mg2000 mg2000 mg
Phosphorus300 mg500 mg800 mg800 mg800 mg
Vitamin A1875 IU1875 IU2000 IU2500 IU3500 IU
Vitamin C30 mg35 mg40 mg45 mg45 mg
Thiamin0.3 mg0.4 mg0.7 mg0.9 mg1 mg
Riboflavin0.4 mg0.5 mg0.8 mg1.1 mg1.2 mg
Niacin5 mg6 mg9 mg12 mg13 mg

Source: US Department of Agriculture

Note: The above tables are great general statistics to begin your nutrition plan. But to be specific, use the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) calculations displayed on this website.

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glycemic index
The Glycemic Index (GI) was first developed in 1981 by a team headed by Dr. David Jenkins at the University of Toronto. It is a measure of the blood sugar level (not a measure of the blood insulin levels) based on consumption after fasting. As a standard, glucose has a level of 100. If a person consumes food with an index of 60, blood sugar levels would increase over a two-hour period by 60% as compared to eating the same amount of pure glucose.

The Glycemic Index is controversial since it is only valid when sugar alone is consumed. Protein and Fat slow the absorption Carbohydrates. However, many diets reference the Glycemic Index to substantiate their individual claims. The index was developed as a way to determine dietary guidelines for diabetics. The American Diabetes Association has not endorsed the Glycemic Index.

According to this theory, a food with a low glycemic index (55 and below) provides a minimal increase in blood glucose, lipoprotein lipase (an enzyme that promotes fat storage), and insulin. A food with a high glycemic index (70 and above), reduces sports performance due to large increases in insulin production and can result in low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).

However, many fruits that are classified as having a high glycemic index can stimulate lipoprotein lipase production even though they are low in sugar. According to the glycemic index, ice cream is considered a low GI and whole wheat bread is a high GI food. Therefore, whole wheat bread would create a higher spike in blood glucose levels and a greater increase in insulin production than ice cream. So it is apparent that glycemic index should not be used as a single indicator.

The following foods are listed according to their glycemic index rating. Most of the high glycemic type carbohydrates are from refined breads and breakfast cereals, white rice, rice cakes, and french fries. Limit your consumption of high glycemic foods, which create a rise in insulin levels and reduce glucagon thereby inhibiting your body from burning body fat. Glucagon is a hormone that is made naturally in the pancreas. It releases glucose from the liver causing blood glucose levels to rise. Eat a minimum amount of high glycemic foods and combine them with proteins and fats. Remember, even low glycemic foods in large quantities can cause weight gain.

Gylcemic Food Table
  • All 100% Bran Cereals o Apples
  • Apple Juice, Barley, Berries
  • Black-eyed Peas and Bulgur
  • Butter Beans and Cherries
  • Grape fruit, Grapes and Ice Cream
  • Milk o Muesli Cereal o Navy Beans
  • Oranges, Peaches and Peanuts
  • Pears, Peas, Plums and Strawberries
  • Soybeans,Wild Rice and Yogurt (no added sugar)
  • Basmati Rice, Beets and Buckwheat
  • Carrots and Cereal (low sugar)
  • Corn on the Cob and Lima Beans
  • Oatmeal, Pasta and Peas
  • Potatoes (red, white) and Potato Chips
  • Pumpernickel Bread o Raisins
  • Spaghetti and Sourdough Bread
  • Sucrose (Table Sugar), Sweet Potato, Whole Wheat Bread (100% stone ground)
HIGH GLYCEMIC FOODS 70-100 PERCENT (Rarely to Never Eat)
  • Apricots, Bagels and Bananas (ripe)
  • Breakfast Cereals (refined with added sugar), Corn Chips and Corn Flakes
  • Corn Syrup Solids and Crackers
  • Doughnuts, Glucose and Glucose Polymers (maltodextrin)
  • Hamburger and Hotdog Buns, Honey - Jelly Beans, Maltose and Mango
  • Muffins, Pancakes and Papaya
  • Parsnips, Puffed Rice or Wheat
  • Potato (baked) and Rice Cakes
  • Shredded Wheat o Soft Drinks and Sport Drinks (added sugars), Toaster Waffles, Watermelon, White Bread
  • White Rice and Whole Wheat Bread

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